Friday, May 22, 2020

Enhancing firm value under concentrated ownership - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1394 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Corporate boards of the company are primary drivers for growth and value maximization. Boards of directors as fiduciaries of the shareholders are delegated with the task of monitoring the management to protect the rights shareholders and enhance the value of their capital (Jensen and Meckling, 1976). The structure of board therefore plays an important role in determining the performance of board and maximizing shareholder wealth (Ghosh, 2006). The board is a vital internal corporate governance mechanism and effective in controlling the management and reducing the agency problem (in dispersed shareholding conditions) (Fama and Jensen, 1983). The introduction of non-executive directors on the board was aimed at solving the agency problem and enhancing board performance. The existing literature suggests that outside directors (particularly independent directors) are able to protect the shareholder interests and can perform value enhancement in case of agency problem (Fama and Jensen, 1983; Fraser and Zhang, 1995; Linck et al. 2008). However, under concentrated ownership conditions, generally, the owner is also manager and the issue of agency problem is minimal. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Enhancing firm value under concentrated ownership" essay for you Create order The board composition with majority of outside directors under concentrated ownership therefore becomes a critical question. The issue arises whether the outside directors: independent and grey (non-executive non-independent); can play critical role and perform value enhancement through their knowledge and expertise. The majority owners under concentrated ownership as regard to their voting rights have control on selection process of directors and therefore directly influence appointments to the board. This matter assumes importance in determining the quality of independent and grey directors and their ability to protect, particularly the minority, shareholder interests. Predominant literature on corporate governance related to effect of board size on firm performance predicts a negative relationship (Yermack, 1996; Gosh, 2006; Guest, 2009). The negative influence of larger group dynamics in bigger board prevail over the anticipated potential advantages of greater number of people on such board (Jensen, 1993). The current study aims to extend research done by Ghosh (2006) on board structure on firm performance in Indian context. In particular, study aims at investigating the effect of board size and composition of board, that is, percentage of inside, independent and grey directors on the board performance. The research is new the perspective, as it aims to understand how presence of these directors on the board affects firm value in period of financial distress under concentrated ownership. II. Research Design The sample used in this study consists of 164 non- financial firms of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) 200 index of India for the financial year 2008-2009. The data on board size and composition was taken from corporate governance report of the companies. The other financial and market data was obtained from Prowess database of Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). Tobin Q = ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²0 + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²1 LBsize + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²2 Fage + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²3 Fsize + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²4 Lev + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²5 Roa + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²6 Ownblock3 + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²7 Indusdum + e ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦eq1 Tobin Q = ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²0 + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²1 LBsize + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²2 (Direc: EXE or GR or IND) + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²3 Fage + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²4 Fsize + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²5 Lev + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²6 Roa + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²7 Ownblock3 + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²8 Indusdum + e ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦eq2 The effect of board size on firm performance is estimated through equation 1, while equation 2 is used for analyzing effect of different categories of directors on the firm performance. The market based performance measure Tobins Q has been used a dependent variable to analyse the effects. Several control variables have been included in model to remove the problem of endogenity and to account for the potential advantages of economies of scale, growth, scope of market power and risk characteristics of firms (Hermalin and Weisbach, 1991; Vafeas and Theodorou, 1998; Shanmugam and Bhaduri, 2002) Table 1 Description of the Variables Type Variable Description and measure Dependent TobinQ Tobins Q , market value of equity plus book value of short-term and long-term debt divided by total assets Independent LBsize Board Size, natural logarithm of the number of director on the board PerEX Executive Directors, percentage of executive directors on the board PerGR Grey Directors, percentage of grey directors on the board PerIND Independent Directors, percentage of Independent directors on the board Control Fage Firm Age, the logarithm of the number of years since the establishment of a firm Fsize Firm Size, natural logarithm of total assets Lev Firm leverage, ratio of long term debt to the total assets Roa Return on assets, measured net profit to the total asset Ownblock3 Ownership block holding, measured percentage ownership of top three block holders of the company indusdum Industry dummy, Industries shown in table III given dummy values from 1 to 15 Table 2 Descriptive Statistics of Variables Variables TobinQ LBsize PerEXE PerGR PerIND Fage Fsize Lev Roa Ownblock3 N 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 Mean 1.504 2.345 29.269 20.291 50.440 7.587 8.815 23.567 0.774 79.056 Median 1.095 2.303 30.000 18.182 50.000 7.591 8.611 23.975 0.550 80.277 Std. Dev 1.359 0.292 12.948 14.421 10.574 0.012 1.131 19.164 0.663 11.865 Minm 0.000 1.609 0.000 0.000 20.000 7.539 6.672 0.000 0.010 46.732 Maxm 8.650 2.996 55.556 62.500 85.710 7.604 12.413 67.960 3.530 100.000 III. Results and Discussion The Indian corporate governance code i.e. Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement which necessitates half of board to be comprised of independent director in case executive or non executive promoter or relative being the Chairman. The results point that on an average, the boards of companies have 70 percent non-executive directors (outside directors) and 50 percent of independent directors. Further analysis ( table III) suggest that companies having larger board size ( more than 11) find it difficult to have 50 percent independent directors on the board. Ghosh (2006) has analyzed the effect of the board composition on firm performance and, finds weak positive association of outside directors with firm performance. Extending his work and also controlling for board size , we have analyzed the effect of three categories of directors namely; inside, independent and grey directors on the firm performance. The regressions results (table IV) reveal that under concentrated ownership regime in per iod of financial distress (08-09), greater proportion of inside directors on the board significantly affects firm performance, whereas greater percentage of grey directors significantly deteriorates the firm performance. Higher percentage of independent directors on board has no significant affect on the firm performance. Consistent with study of Ghosh (2006) and other international studies and, we find that board size is negatively associated with Tobins Q, though not at any significant level. We see that average board size of sample companies is approx 11 (table III). The result suggests that larger boards are ineffective in monitoring the management due to higher agency cost associated with it, and ideal board size for Indian companies should smaller and below 11. Table 3 Board Composition Industry Companies Board Size Exe Direc Grey Direc Ind. Direc NE Direc ( Grey+ Ind)    ( Number) (Avg Size ) ( Avg Percen) ( Avg Percen) ( Avg Percen) (Avg Percen) Agriculture 7 10.71 34.27 16.67 49.06 65.73 Capital Goods 14 11 30.25 18.95 50.79 69.75 Chemical 3 13 33.9 14.58 51.52 66.1 FMCG 9 10.11 26.6 23.05 50.35 73.4 Healthcare 15 9.73 34.62 12.02 53.35 65.37 Housing Related 18 11.38 29.97 19.74 50.29 70.03 Information Technology 12 9.83 25.23 18.64 56.13 74.77 Metals and Mining 18 11.11 30.44 21.58 47.97 69.56 Oil Gas 16 11.56 33.78 22.73 43.48 66.22 Power 13 12.15 26.31 22.88 50.8 73.69 Telecom 6 9.33 13.89 33.89 52.22 86.11 Automobiles 12 11.58 29.13 22.14 48.72 70.87 Transport Services 6 10.83 32.38 16.94 50.67 67.61 Textile 4 9.75 22.32 24.46 53.21 77.68 Others 11 10.27 24.68 21.45 53.86 75.31 Total 164 10.89 29.26 20.29 50.44 70.73 Table 4 TobinQ- Model Board performance Dep Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Ind variables coeff t coeff t coeff t coeff t (Constant) 0.217 3.331** 0.182 2.674** 0.247 3.757* 0.183 2.449*** LBsize -0.171 -1.542 -0.186 -1.686+ -0.147 -1.333 -0.146 -1.284 PerEX       0.077 1.682+             PerGR             -0.101 -2.195***       PerIND                   0.08 0.917 Control Variables                         Fage -9.276 -1.396 -8.546 -1.291 -9.3 -1.417 -0.9781 -1.467 Fsize -0.408 -3.259** -0.429 -3.428** 0.451 -3.6* -0.419 -3.329** Lev -0.089 -2.309*** -0.098 -2.536*** -0.104 -2.685** -0.092 -2.365*** Roa 0.297 5.276* 0.287 5.102* 0.287 5.155* 0.298 5.293* Ownblock3 0.331 3.558* 0.315 3.387** 0.338 3.67* 0.346 3.66* indusdum -0.002 -0.576 -0.001 -0.214 0 -0.142 -0.002 -0.566 No. of Firms 164 164 164 164 indusdum Included Included Included Included R 0.578 0.588 0.595 0.581 R square 0.334 0.346 0.354 0.338 Adj R square 0.304 0.312 0.321 0.303 F change 11.173* 10.245* 10.618* 9.872* * denotes significance at 0.01 % level ,** denotes significance at 1 % level, *** denotes significance at 5% level , + denotes significance at 10 % level IV. Conclusion The current study investigates which directors are able to enhance performance of corporate boards of companies in Indian context. The results suggest it is particularly the inside directors who are committed to shareholders for their wealth maximization. The inside directors know the company well, have full time commitment and own significant proportion in the company. There interests are much aligned with company, to they can perform value maximization role. Outside directors play a limited role under concentrated ownership regime as evident by regression results. Their quality and ability to protect minority shareholders has also become questionable after Satyam fiasco (Singh and Kumar; 2010). Outside directors and particularly Grey directors are not able to play their role of value maximization in absence of agency problem. Thee study has few implication and lends support for Indian policy makers who aiming to propose the new corporate governance framework for companies through the Companies Bill, 2009. The new legislation proposes to limit to number of independent directors on the board to one third. Our study lends support to this proposed rule and suggests for improving the quality of outside directors. It also necessary to rationalize board size as larger board is ineffective enhancing the firm performance. Our study also lends support to requirement of this legislation that limits board size from three to 12. Based on our findings, we propose further reduce this to 10 or 11 (average board of sample companies) that certainly help in enhancing board performance.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Financial Crisis And Economic Meltdown - 1527 Words

Concerns about the compensation of executive officers and other top executives of American public companies have reached fever pitch since the financial crisis and economic meltdown recently. Some observers blame the recent recession in part on the unsound compensation arrangements for the top management of major financial institutions. For almost 20 years, a growing reprise of voices—including some shareholders, the business media, policymakers, and academics—have been criticizing the way top managers are paid. The criticisms focus particularly on CEOs not only because they are the highest paid, but also because their compensation sets the pattern for executives beneath them. Flawed compensation arrangements have not been limited to a†¦show more content†¦Immense salary imbalances between CEOs and the people who work for them can send bad feelings throughout an organization, weakening loyalty and eroding the talent syndicate. Year in and year out, the same cus tom is played out in the business press; compensation figures for the highest paid chief executives elicit predictable talks about overpayment. Although economists have found that many CEOs are worth every nickel they get, social scientists are looking more closely at the psychological effects of executive pay on corporate life. One standout associate; Charles O Reilly, director of Stanford GSB s Center for Leadership Development and Research who has conducted a series of studies that try to explain CEO compensation, ranging from how corporate boards decide upon salaries to how social status figures in setting executive pay. One of O Reilly s latest papers examines how chief executive salaries affect employees. The study found that inequity in CEO pay triggers increased turnover among managers below the chief executive. Using data from 120 large public companies over a five-year period, O Reilly found, for example, that in one firm

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Critical Aspects of Education Research Planning Free Essays

According to the United States Government’s â€Å"National Directions in Education Research Planning,† educational research planning must emphasize focus and selectivity in curriculum design and â€Å"concentrate on those areas that the public and profession believe are important as well as those that will become important,† to render education practical for student’s future lives outside of the classroom. Student learning is the touchstone issue and there must be â€Å"a particular but by no means exclusive emphasis on the challenges presented by ever-growing diversity and inequality. † (Timpane, 1998) Additionally, the selection of specific areas of inquiry for teachers, through the use of objective research, must be clear enough to â€Å"build strategies consisting of related projects executed over time. We will write a custom essay sample on The Critical Aspects of Education Research Planning or any similar topic only for you Order Now † The candidates for the â€Å"short list of research priorities seemed rather obvious: continued focus on reading and language learning; expanded attention to mathematics; the dynamics of teacher performance and effectiveness in schools and classrooms; and new emphasis on technology and telecommunications, international studies, and learning in family, community, and workplace settings. Peer planning amongst teachers was also deemed critical in preparing students for the future in a practical fashion, given research-based statistical support as to its effectiveness. (Timpane, 1998) Individuals involved in educational research and improvement are able, by fulfilling these objectives of specificity and focus â€Å"to add more value to their own work and to the joint endeavor of learning. When an educational goal can be clearly stated and is future focused, educational progress becomes based on ideas that have a clear applicability to student’s lives and futures, and also can be â€Å"validated by well-designed, well-executed research,† focused objectives are more easily â€Å"translated into success by well-qualified professionals† with clarity for students and teachers. (Timpane, 1998) Within every school or classroom, there is always a tension between creating a flexible and responsive community of individual learners and adhering to focused, validated, objective standards determined by outside professional sources. But even though standards cannot nor should not be rigidly applied, having a research based blueprint for how a district should operate is key to ensure that the â€Å"ideology of associational action and local democracy on the one hand† and â€Å"an adherence to essentially rational-bureaucratic approaches to planning and implementation† is kept in a state of balance, and students are adequately prepared to move on into a new educational community and teachers have a network of professional resources, guides, and support structures upon which they can shape their educational objectives and plans. (Chaskin, 2005) How to cite The Critical Aspects of Education Research Planning, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Separate Peace Essays (2248 words) - Phillips Exeter Academy

Separate Peace In John Knowles book A Separate Peace he communicates how the war in him was taking its toll on him. He uses the characters in a complicated plot to show the destructive forces of war. The characters, Gene and Finny, are the opposing forces in a struggle between the reality of war (World War II) and a separate peace. A peace away from the real war and the awful things that come from it. Through their relationship, which is a struggle on both sides, Knowles establishes the reality of war through a relationship. Gene Forrestor is established as the force of reality. This idea is established clearly in a speech Gene gives as the narrator of the story. "Everyone has a moment in history which belongs particularly to him. It is the moment when his emotions achieve their most powerful sway over him, and afterward when you say to this person " the world today" or "life" or "reality" he will assume that you mean this moment, even if it is fifty years past. The world, through his unleashed emotions, imprinted itself upon him and he carries the stamp of that passing moment forever." (Knowles, 32) This statement explains that Gene must have something that is his "stamp". This stamp defines an individual standing up for something he believes in. The next paragraph shows that this is true where Gene continues, "For me, this moment-four years is a moment in history-war the war. The war was and is reality for me. I still live and think in its atmosphere." (Knowles, 32) Later in the same paragraph he goes on to say: "America is not, never has been, and never will be what the songs and poems call it, a land of plenty. Nylon, meat, gasoline, and steel are rare. There are too many jobs and not enough workers. Money is very easy to earn but rather hard to spend, because there isn't very much to buy. The war will always be fought very far away from America and it will never end. Nothing in America stands still for very long, including the people, who are always either leaving or on leave." (Knowles, 32) This is what Gene stands for in the book A Separate Peace. Gene appears to understand the reality of war and how it affects people. Throughout the entire story Gene is used to bring the destructive reality of war into everyday life at Devon High School where there is an attempt to create and exist in a separate peace. There is a reality known by Gene that is headed by Gene's best friend, Finny. Finny has his own reality that he creates and exists in is the separate peace spoken of earlier. Finny who is a very athletic person, begins to create this separate peace with games. Because Finny can't face the reality of the real war, these games are a representation of the war. Finny makes the rules so that he can exist in these games as an invincible force. The first game Finny invents is "The Super Suicide of the Summer Session." This game consists of jumping of the limb of a tree into the river by Devon. As the game is invented, both Finny and Gene, agree to start it by being the first ones to jump out of the tree into a river. One time Finny allows Gene to jump out first. This is the start of a separate peace. "We were standing on a limb, I a little farther out than Finny. I turned to say something else, some stalling remark, something to delay even a few seconds more, and then I realized that in turning I had begun to lose my balance... There was a moment of total, impersonal panic, and then Finny's hand shot out and grabbed my arm, and with my balance restored, the panic immediately disappeared." (Knowles, 24) In this instance Finny saves Gene from falling out of Finny's world and into Gene's reality. The idea of Gene understanding that this is Finny's world comes in chapter three. "Yes, he had practically saved my life. He had also practically lost it for me. I wouldn't of been on that d#%* limb except for him. I wouldn't have turned around and so lost my balance, if he hadn't been there. I didn't need to fell any tremendous rush of gratitude toward Phineas."(Knowles, 25) This is when Gene knows he was out of his reality and into Finny's world, and Finny's world could

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Automobile Essay Example

Automobile Essay Example Automobile Essay Automobile Essay The automobile affected the growth of the American economy more than any other invention in the 1920s because it lead to mass production of goods, started the idea of a travel, and it started the highway. This invention completely changed the way that the economy in America has evolved since the 1920s. Itâ„ ¢s started a whole new way of life from a country that rode around on horses for many years. Economic ideas spread quicker than ever. The automobile helped goods get seen in the whole world and they helped to transport them. When the automobile came out it was the beginning of the economy we see today in America, a capitalist economy. The Assembly Line In 1910 the need for cars was steadily increasing, but the price of an automobile was around $ 4200. (Concept Carz) This made it very hard for the average American to purchase a car for their family. A world renowned invention was soon to be invented. As the need for cars was increasing, manufacturers were taking notice in that, but it was impossible to charge less with the few amounts of cars that they could make in one day. Henry Ford, then a president of a small company, heard much about a new way to produce cars. It became clear that the new technology had to be introduced into his factory immediately to increase profits. From 1913-1914, the first movable assembly line was built in Henry Fordâ„ ¢s factory in Highland Park, Michigan. I believe that this was the first moving line ever installed. The idea came in a general way from the overhead trolley that the Chicago packers use in dressing beef. (Ford Motor Company) Those are the words of Walter Flanders, the man who hel ped design the assembly line for Ford. The assembly was an invention for the people. It produced cars in shortly over an hour from 12 hours before. It allowed Ford to lower prices of cars from around $ 4,000 to about $ 500. The idea of an assembly line migrated quickly to other companies. Soon, many companies were mass producing their goods to the mass market. The assembly line had a huge positive impact on the consumer economy. People were able to afford things they werenâ„ ¢t able to buy before. The assembly line you could say is the reason Americans have things we donâ„ ¢t need. We are able to afford things because theyâ„ ¢re mass produced so the prices can be lowered. The assembly line was probably the biggest factor of improving the economy and it started with the automobile. If it wasnâ„ ¢t for the automobile mass production would cease to exist for probably another 10-20 years. Travel Before the automobile, many Americans had never traveled more than 50 miles from their house. That was about to change. With automobiles being mass produced, more people had them and, people started drift away from their hometowns. People wanted to get away. So they started to travel. With traveling comes the need to stay in places overnight and make attractions that draw crowds from different parts of the country. In 1927 in Minnesota, the government there noticed the new amount of tourists that they attracted due to cars. They decided to make the week of May 1st 10,000 lakes week. The goal was to get ten thousand visitors that week. That summer about 1,800,000 tourists spent over 70 million dollars in Minnesota because they could drive there. Arthur Roberts of the Ten Thousand Lakes Association said, Tourists are good business stimulators. Most of them are good buyers and they have cash (Lorentzen). As you can see just because of the automobile the economy in Minnesota exploded up wards. That was just the beginning of the tourist boom in the country. People started to travel a lot more and hotels and motels started to arise. People were going to the beach; they were doing road trips, and many other things. The automobile also helped spread ideas across the country very quickly. When someone would travel somewhere they would go back home and let their friends and family know and that would then bring more people to that area. That increased the number of sales that area made.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Angles and Anglos

Angles and Anglos Angles and Anglos Angles and Anglos By Maeve Maddox The word Anglo, like English, derives from the Latin name for one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain after the Romans abandoned their colony there. The first documented use of the word Anglii is in a history of the German tribes by the Roman historian Tacitus (56-c.117 CE). The Angles were only one of several Germanic tribes that later settled in Britain after the Romans left, but it is their name that has given us the words England, English, and Anglo. Anglo has various meanings, depending upon context. Anglo as a Combining Form with a Hyphen One use of Anglo is as a combining form to create compounds relating to England, Britain, or the English language. Here are some examples: Despite its sentimentality, â€Å"The Bright Side† is expressive of real moral outrage, and founded largely on valid observation of  the plight of Anglo-Germans during the war. - â€Å"Anglo-Germans† designates people of German origin who were living in England at the outbreak of the war. This work examines aspects of Anglo-French relations since the late eighteenth century.- â€Å"Anglo-French relations†: diplomatic relations between England and France. This book discusses the â€Å"Anglo-Italian† identity politics of post-Napoleonic British expatriates  in Italy.- â€Å"Anglo-Italian† refers to people of English origin living in Italy. Journalist Kris Griffiths was born to a Welsh  father  and  Anglo-Indian  mother.- â€Å"Anglo-Indian† indicates that one of the mother’s parents was British. Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum belongs to the category of Anglo-Latin literature.- â€Å"Anglo-Latin literature† is literature from Britain originally written in Latin. Anglo as a Combining Form without a Hyphen These words are used as nouns and adjectives. Sometimes they are written in lowercase. Here are definitions for their use as nouns: Anglophobe: A person who has a strong aversion or hostility to England (or Britain), its people, culture, etc. Anglophile: A supporter or admirer of England (or Britain), its people, customs, etc. Anglophone: A person who speaks English. Anglosphere: A group of countries that maintain a close affinity of cultural, familial and political links with one another, notably, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Anglo as a Noun In Canada, Anglo refers to an English-speaking Canadian. In India, an Anglo is a person of mixed British and Indian descent. In the United States, Anglo refers to a resident who is not of Hispanic origin. Note: The hyphenated form Anglo-American can refer to a) relations between Great Britain and the United States, b) the culture shared by the United States and Anglo-phone Canada, and c) English-speaking nations in the western hemisphere contrasted with non-English-speaking nations. Related post: Anglos and Saxons Before England Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Punctuating â€Å"So† at the Beginning of a SentenceDriver License vs. Driver’s LicenseOne "L" or Two?

Sunday, February 16, 2020

International refugee law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

International refugee law - Essay Example In this regard the paper is divided into two sections with the first section dealing with the internationally recognized rights of refugees and the second section providing for the context of Somali refugees in Kenya and their right to stay out of refugee camps. Countries have been allowing protection for people and groups escaping persecution for centuries, however the current approach to protecting the rights of these individuals is based on a law that has its origins in the aftermath of the Second World War. The greatest challenge facing individuals arriving in a foreign country is to convince authorities that they are entitled to recognition as refugees. The questions that are raised by the authorities is the level of risk necessary by the standard of well-founded fear, the harm encompassed by being persecuted and the duty of the refugees to seek an internal remedy before seeking refugee protection in another country. Also important are the grounds for the protection of refugees as well as the connection required between these grounds and the risk of being persecuted. For reasons of both pragmatism and principle less developed countries, which host the greater majority of refugees, rarely contest the eligibility of refugee status for in dividuals arriving at its borders. The conceptual generosity of these states, however does not match with the efforts of these countries to treat the refugees in line with the provisions of the refugee convention. In essence, refugees in less developed countries are often socially marginalized, detained, left physically at risk and even denied the capability of meeting their most basic needs.1 Individuals who are forced to run away from their country due to the fear of persecution, whether as part of a group or on an individual basis due to religious, military, political or any other reason are regarded as refugees. The meaning of a refugee has varied according to place and time,