Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Neediness in Australia Before talking about the degree of neediness in Australia, it is first essential to specify the contrast between outright destitution and relative neediness. Total Poverty is where hardship is outrageous in light of the fact that individuals don't approach the essential necessities, for example, food, garments, and safe house. Interestingly Relative Poverty is a circumstance wherein the occurrence of neediness is estimated comparative with things, for example, normal week by week profit or salary per head. Subsequently neediness, as discussed in Australia is where pay is deficient to meet the base needs of the family or person. The Poverty Line is the degree of pay beneath which the pay of the family unit or individual is lacking to meet the basic needs of the family or individual as dictated by society. The Poverty line is controlled by a level of normal week by week profit. In 1966, the first destitution line for Australia, was set by Professor Henderson as fundamental pay in addition to the youngster gift payable for two kids. There is a clear absence of ongoing information on destitution in Australia, along these lines we need to think back similarly as reports from the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, so as to locate any applicable data on neediness in Australia. In 1975 there was a report made on the degree of destitution in Australia by Professor Henderson. It has since been known as the Henderson Report. The Henderson Report found that 8.5 percent of Australians were living under the destitution line. It likewise found that: Ã¢â¬Å"Most of the poor experience the ill effects of at least one of the accompanying inabilities: mature age, absence of a male provider, countless dependant youngsters, ongoing movement to Australia, or delayed ailment. The rate of destitution was a lot higher in these classifications than among those with no of these disabilities.Ã¢â¬ (Henderson 1975) At the hour of this report normal week by week income in Australia were $165 every week, the neediness line for a solitary individual was set a t $49.60 for a solitary individual, and $93.20 for a couple with 2 kids. (Jackson, McIver 1998) A report like the Henderson report was completed in 1987, where the neediness line, despite everything utilizing the first strategy utilized in 1966, had been raised to $146 every week for a solitary, and $274 every week for a couple with two youngsters. (Jackson, McIver 1998) Although the destitution line had ascended because of financial develop... ... each fortnight no matter what, and without the problems of going to work each morning. While the Australian Welfare System isn't flawless it manages without question aid its fundamental target which is lessening disparity of earnings, and accordingly the degree of neediness. In spite of the fact that there is no present information on the measure of Australians living under the neediness line, and it is extremely hard to assess, it shows up likely that utilizing Professor HendersonÃ¢â¬â¢s unique technique, the expanding disparity in the dispersion of family unit livelihoods has caused the level of Australians living beneath the destitution line to expanded considerably. Reference index: Collier, B. 1992. Presenting Economics. Sydney, New South Wales. Anzarut, D. 1985. Senior Economics. Melbourne, Victoria. Lipsey, R. Langley, P. Mahoney, D. Positive Economics for Australian Students, Sydney, New South Wales. National Coalition against Poverty. 10 September 2001. URL http://www.bsl.org.au/ncapwebsite Patterns in Income Inequality in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. 15 September 2001. URL http://www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/bars/cpol.html. Pearce, Y. August 20 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty level Ã¢â¬ËJust hot airÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ The West Australian.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
During the Middle Ages and Renaissance period marriage and love were romanticized, divine and celebrated. Weddings were enormous occasions that incorporated the whole groups of both the husband to be and the lady. The truth was extraordinary; ladies were seen as being whimsical, second rate compared to men and an ownership of men. Ladies had practically nothing, assuming any, decision in who they would wed. Relationships were masterminded so the two families would profit in picking up riches or influence. Despite the fact that the leader of England for more than 4 decades was female, ladies were as yet not regarded. Ladies were kept at home and not permitted to occur in open occasions. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Richard III, male and female connections are shown as profoundly critical and depend on falsehoods, desire and political addition. To begin with, the connection between Lady Anne and Richard isn't the main, however one model, of a relationship that depends on lies. As Lady Anne grieves over the homicide of her dad in-law Henry VI, Richard comes and welcomes her with Ã¢â¬Å"sweet saintÃ¢â¬ (1.2.49) and Ã¢â¬Å"bolsters this welcome with a series of praises, to which she reacts with cursesÃ¢â¬ (Miner, 47). Richard says that the explanation he killed Henry VI and Edward is a result of her magnificence. Ã¢â¬Å"Your magnificence was the reason for that impact/Your excellence, that haunted me in my rest/To embrace the passing of all the world (1.2.126-128)Ã¢â¬ . In saying this, Richard Ã¢â¬Å"directs culpability from himself and onto the female figureÃ¢â¬ (Miner, 47). Richard imagined that Ã¢â¬Å"her magnificence filled in as motivation for murderÃ¢â¬ (Miner, 48). Be that as it may, he lied; he executed both to draw nearer to the seat, and charmed Anne for a similar explanation. Second, the connection between Princess Elizabeth and Richard fills in for instance of one that depends on desire. Since Elizabeth Ã¢â¬Å"remains t... ...chard are utilized as political addition and the new King Richmond is delegated. The basisÃ¢â¬â¢s of these connections are frail and didn't, or at times, won't last. Richard understands that Anne is not, at this point any utilization to him, and makes an arrangement to slaughter her. Ã¢â¬Å"Rumour it abroad/The Anne my better half is egregious wiped out/I will take request for her keeping close (4.2.51-53)Ã¢â¬ . Sovereign Elizabeth spares her girl from Richard and sends a proposition to Richmond. Richmond may attempt to frame a closer bond with Elizabeth, or misuse his new influence as lord. Consequently, the models in the play give us the message that, connections that are not founded on affection, character and satisfaction will end ineffectively. Ã¢â¬Å"Ay me, for nothing that I would ever peruse/Could ever hear by story or history/The course of genuine affection never ran smooth (Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream 1.1.132-134)Ã¢â¬ .
Sunday, July 26, 2020
How Does a Cash Advance on Your Credit Card Work How Does a Cash Advance on Your Credit Card Work? How Does a Cash Advance on Your Credit Card Work?You can get an advance on your credit card to take out cashâ"but the cost will be much higher than the cost of a standard credit card transaction.When you get a credit card offer in the mail, youâll often see them mention âcash advancesâ as one of the features. Usually, this cash advance comes with a different annual percentage rate (APR) than regular credit card transactions plus additional fees.In case you were too embarrassed to askâ"what exactly is a credit card cash advance? Donât worry, thereâs no judgment here. Weâre happy to explain.How does a credit card work?Before we get to cash advances, letâs cover some credit card basics.A credit card is basically a type of loan, one that works as a âline of credit.â Instead of getting handed a chunk of cash like you would with a regular loan, a line of credit gives you a maximum amount that you can borrow. Youâre only responsible for repaying what you actually withd raw.With a credit card, you can swipe the card in a store or online to make a purchase. The amount spent in that transaction gets added to your card as a part of your âbalance,â or how much money youâve borrowed with the card so farâ"money that you will be responsible for paying back. The total amount that you can borrow on a credit card is referred to as your âcredit limit.âOnce you have a balance placed on your credit card, you will be responsible for paying it back, plus interest. Every month, you will have a minimum amount you need to repay. Usually, this amount is a small percentage of the balance plus interest.Credit cards have a very low monthly minimum payment compared to regular personal loans. This means they can be an affordable way to borrow, but it also means that theyll take many years to pay off if youâre only paying the minimum amount. The longer the card takes to pay off, the more interest will accrue and the more youâll pay overall.The standard inter est rates for credit cards usually vary between 11 and 25 percentâ"depending on your credit score. Luckily, most cards also come with a 30-day interest-free grace period. This means that you have 30 days to pay off a given purchase before it begins to accrue any interest. If you are able to pay off your balance in full every month, this essentially means that youâre borrowing money for free.Lastly, credit cards have whatâs called a revolving balance. This means that the amount you can spend against your credit limit replenishes as your balance is paid down. Hereâs an example:If you had a card with a $3,000 credit limit and a $2,000 balance, you would have $1,000 left to spend before the card was maxed out. Now, lets say you paid off $500 of that balance. Youâd be left with a balance of $1,500, and youâd be able to spend an additional $1,500 before you maxed out the card.Cash advances let you use your credit card to take out cash.Now that weâve covered the basics of cred it card use, we can turn to cash advances.Simply put, a cash advance is when you use your credit card to get physical cash. The amount that you withdraw is then added to your balance, the same as with a regular credit card transaction. If you were to get a $200 cash advance, your credit card balance would go up by $200. These advances can be very useful if you find yourself in a âcash-onlyâ emergency.However, there are some important ways that a credit card cash advance differs from a regular credit card transaction:Most cards require an additional fee to take out a cash advance. Oftentimes this fee will be the larger of a small percentage (two to four percent) of the amount withdrawn or a set dollar number like $5 or $10.Cash advances do not come with the same 30-day interest-free grace period that regular credit card transactions have. When you take out a cash advance, interest will start accruing on that transaction immediately.Most cards have separate interest rates for cash advances, and those rates are much higher than the rates on normal transactions. For example, you could have a normal APR of 18 percent on your card, but a rate of 24 percent for any cash advances.As you can see, taking out a credit card cash advance is going to be much more expensive than using your credit card normally. Not only can you not avoid paying interest, but the rate youâll be paying will be much higher. Plus, you have to pay a fee on top of all that just to access your cash!Still, a credit card cash advance is preferable to the other type of cash advances you might encounter.Watch out for predatory loans that advertise themselves as âcash advances.âWhen you need cash for unforeseen expenses, you might think about heading down to your local payday lender storefront and taking out a short-term cash advance loan. After all, youâll pay the whole thing off in two weeks, so whatâs the harm?As it turns out, the risk for potential harm with a cash advance loan is hug eâ"much higher than the risk with a credit card cash advance.Many no credit check loans, like payday loans and title loans, like to call themselves âcash advanceâ loans. These are products that come with very short repayment terms (often two weeks to a month) and very high APRs, usually in the range of 300 to 400 percent.Theoretically, people are taking out these loans as an âadvanceâ on their next paycheck, hence the name. But in reality, many people have trouble paying these loans off on time and are forced to roll the loan over and pay additional fees and interest to extend the due date.The longer these loans are extended, the more expensive they becomeâ"especially because many people end up only paying off the interest on their loan, not the principal. Predatory loans like theseâ"whether they are from a storefront or theyâre online loans from a websiteâ"can all too easily trap people in a continuous cycle of debt.These cash advance loans are targeted at people wit h bad credit, as those folks generally have fewer lending options available to them. And while there are many bad credit loansâ"particularly installment loansâ"that are safe and socially responsible, there are too many instances where predatory cash advance loans are taking advantage of vulnerable populations.For people with poor credit scores, getting cash in an emergency can be tough. But if youâre faced with taking out a cash advance on your credit card or taking out a âcash advanceâ loan, you should go with your credit card. It is by far the cheaper, safer option.To learn more about cash advances, check out these related posts and articles from OppLoans:When You Get a Cash Advance, Do They Check Your Credit Score?How to Calculate the Cost of Your Cash AdvanceCash Advances vs. Check Cashing Stores: Which is Worse?What other questions do you have about cash advances? We want to hear from you! You can email us or you can find us on Facebook and Twitter.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1394 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Corporate boards of the company are primary drivers for growth and value maximization. Boards of directors as fiduciaries of the shareholders are delegated with the task of monitoring the management to protect the rights shareholders and enhance the value of their capital (Jensen and Meckling, 1976). The structure of board therefore plays an important role in determining the performance of board and maximizing shareholder wealth (Ghosh, 2006). The board is a vital internal corporate governance mechanism and effective in controlling the management and reducing the agency problem (in dispersed shareholding conditions) (Fama and Jensen, 1983). The introduction of non-executive directors on the board was aimed at solving the agency problem and enhancing board performance. The existing literature suggests that outside directors (particularly independent directors) are able to protect the shareholder interests and can perform value enhancement in case of agency problem (Fama and Jensen, 1983; Fraser and Zhang, 1995; Linck et al. 2008). However, under concentrated ownership conditions, generally, the owner is also manager and the issue of agency problem is minimal. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Enhancing firm value under concentrated ownership" essay for you Create order The board composition with majority of outside directors under concentrated ownership therefore becomes a critical question. The issue arises whether the outside directors: independent and grey (non-executive non-independent); can play critical role and perform value enhancement through their knowledge and expertise. The majority owners under concentrated ownership as regard to their voting rights have control on selection process of directors and therefore directly influence appointments to the board. This matter assumes importance in determining the quality of independent and grey directors and their ability to protect, particularly the minority, shareholder interests. Predominant literature on corporate governance related to effect of board size on firm performance predicts a negative relationship (Yermack, 1996; Gosh, 2006; Guest, 2009). The negative influence of larger group dynamics in bigger board prevail over the anticipated potential advantages of greater number of people on such board (Jensen, 1993). The current study aims to extend research done by Ghosh (2006) on board structure on firm performance in Indian context. In particular, study aims at investigating the effect of board size and composition of board, that is, percentage of inside, independent and grey directors on the board performance. The research is new the perspective, as it aims to understand how presence of these directors on the board affects firm value in period of financial distress under concentrated ownership. II. Research Design The sample used in this study consists of 164 non- financial firms of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) 200 index of India for the financial year 2008-2009. The data on board size and composition was taken from corporate governance report of the companies. The other financial and market data was obtained from Prowess database of Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). Tobin Q = ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²0 + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²1 LBsize + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²2 Fage + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²3 Fsize + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²4 Lev + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²5 Roa + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²6 Ownblock3 + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²7 Indusdum + e ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦eq1 Tobin Q = ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²0 + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²1 LBsize + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²2 (Direc: EXE or GR or IND) + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²3 Fage + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²4 Fsize + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²5 Lev + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²6 Roa + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²7 Ownblock3 + ÃÆ'Ã ½ÃâÃ ²8 Indusdum + e ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦eq2 The effect of board size on firm performance is estimated through equation 1, while equation 2 is used for analyzing effect of different categories of directors on the firm performance. The market based performance measure Tobins Q has been used a dependent variable to analyse the effects. Several control variables have been included in model to remove the problem of endogenity and to account for the potential advantages of economies of scale, growth, scope of market power and risk characteristics of firms (Hermalin and Weisbach, 1991; Vafeas and Theodorou, 1998; Shanmugam and Bhaduri, 2002) Table 1 Description of the Variables Type Variable Description and measure Dependent TobinQ Tobins Q , market value of equity plus book value of short-term and long-term debt divided by total assets Independent LBsize Board Size, natural logarithm of the number of director on the board PerEX Executive Directors, percentage of executive directors on the board PerGR Grey Directors, percentage of grey directors on the board PerIND Independent Directors, percentage of Independent directors on the board Control Fage Firm Age, the logarithm of the number of years since the establishment of a firm Fsize Firm Size, natural logarithm of total assets Lev Firm leverage, ratio of long term debt to the total assets Roa Return on assets, measured net profit to the total asset Ownblock3 Ownership block holding, measured percentage ownership of top three block holders of the company indusdum Industry dummy, Industries shown in table III given dummy values from 1 to 15 Table 2 Descriptive Statistics of Variables Variables TobinQ LBsize PerEXE PerGR PerIND Fage Fsize Lev Roa Ownblock3 N 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 Mean 1.504 2.345 29.269 20.291 50.440 7.587 8.815 23.567 0.774 79.056 Median 1.095 2.303 30.000 18.182 50.000 7.591 8.611 23.975 0.550 80.277 Std. Dev 1.359 0.292 12.948 14.421 10.574 0.012 1.131 19.164 0.663 11.865 Minm 0.000 1.609 0.000 0.000 20.000 7.539 6.672 0.000 0.010 46.732 Maxm 8.650 2.996 55.556 62.500 85.710 7.604 12.413 67.960 3.530 100.000 III. Results and Discussion The Indian corporate governance code i.e. Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement which necessitates half of board to be comprised of independent director in case executive or non executive promoter or relative being the Chairman. The results point that on an average, the boards of companies have 70 percent non-executive directors (outside directors) and 50 percent of independent directors. Further analysis ( table III) suggest that companies having larger board size ( more than 11) find it difficult to have 50 percent independent directors on the board. Ghosh (2006) has analyzed the effect of the board composition on firm performance and, finds weak positive association of outside directors with firm performance. Extending his work and also controlling for board size , we have analyzed the effect of three categories of directors namely; inside, independent and grey directors on the firm performance. The regressions results (table IV) reveal that under concentrated ownership regime in per iod of financial distress (08-09), greater proportion of inside directors on the board significantly affects firm performance, whereas greater percentage of grey directors significantly deteriorates the firm performance. Higher percentage of independent directors on board has no significant affect on the firm performance. Consistent with study of Ghosh (2006) and other international studies and, we find that board size is negatively associated with Tobins Q, though not at any significant level. We see that average board size of sample companies is approx 11 (table III). The result suggests that larger boards are ineffective in monitoring the management due to higher agency cost associated with it, and ideal board size for Indian companies should smaller and below 11. Table 3 Board Composition Industry Companies Board Size Exe Direc Grey Direc Ind. Direc NE Direc ( Grey+ Ind) ÃâÃ ( Number) (Avg Size ) ( Avg Percen) ( Avg Percen) ( Avg Percen) (Avg Percen) Agriculture 7 10.71 34.27 16.67 49.06 65.73 Capital Goods 14 11 30.25 18.95 50.79 69.75 Chemical 3 13 33.9 14.58 51.52 66.1 FMCG 9 10.11 26.6 23.05 50.35 73.4 Healthcare 15 9.73 34.62 12.02 53.35 65.37 Housing Related 18 11.38 29.97 19.74 50.29 70.03 Information Technology 12 9.83 25.23 18.64 56.13 74.77 Metals and Mining 18 11.11 30.44 21.58 47.97 69.56 Oil Gas 16 11.56 33.78 22.73 43.48 66.22 Power 13 12.15 26.31 22.88 50.8 73.69 Telecom 6 9.33 13.89 33.89 52.22 86.11 Automobiles 12 11.58 29.13 22.14 48.72 70.87 Transport Services 6 10.83 32.38 16.94 50.67 67.61 Textile 4 9.75 22.32 24.46 53.21 77.68 Others 11 10.27 24.68 21.45 53.86 75.31 Total 164 10.89 29.26 20.29 50.44 70.73 Table 4 TobinQ- Model Board performance Dep Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Ind variables coeff t coeff t coeff t coeff t (Constant) 0.217 3.331** 0.182 2.674** 0.247 3.757* 0.183 2.449*** LBsize -0.171 -1.542 -0.186 -1.686+ -0.147 -1.333 -0.146 -1.284 PerEX ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 0.077 1.682+ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ PerGR ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ -0.101 -2.195*** ÃâÃ ÃâÃ PerIND ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 0.08 0.917 Control Variables ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Fage -9.276 -1.396 -8.546 -1.291 -9.3 -1.417 -0.9781 -1.467 Fsize -0.408 -3.259** -0.429 -3.428** 0.451 -3.6* -0.419 -3.329** Lev -0.089 -2.309*** -0.098 -2.536*** -0.104 -2.685** -0.092 -2.365*** Roa 0.297 5.276* 0.287 5.102* 0.287 5.155* 0.298 5.293* Ownblock3 0.331 3.558* 0.315 3.387** 0.338 3.67* 0.346 3.66* indusdum -0.002 -0.576 -0.001 -0.214 0 -0.142 -0.002 -0.566 No. of Firms 164 164 164 164 indusdum Included Included Included Included R 0.578 0.588 0.595 0.581 R square 0.334 0.346 0.354 0.338 Adj R square 0.304 0.312 0.321 0.303 F change 11.173* 10.245* 10.618* 9.872* * denotes significance at 0.01 % level ,** denotes significance at 1 % level, *** denotes significance at 5% level , + denotes significance at 10 % level IV. Conclusion The current study investigates which directors are able to enhance performance of corporate boards of companies in Indian context. The results suggest it is particularly the inside directors who are committed to shareholders for their wealth maximization. The inside directors know the company well, have full time commitment and own significant proportion in the company. There interests are much aligned with company, to they can perform value maximization role. Outside directors play a limited role under concentrated ownership regime as evident by regression results. Their quality and ability to protect minority shareholders has also become questionable after Satyam fiasco (Singh and Kumar; 2010). Outside directors and particularly Grey directors are not able to play their role of value maximization in absence of agency problem. Thee study has few implication and lends support for Indian policy makers who aiming to propose the new corporate governance framework for companies through the Companies Bill, 2009. The new legislation proposes to limit to number of independent directors on the board to one third. Our study lends support to this proposed rule and suggests for improving the quality of outside directors. It also necessary to rationalize board size as larger board is ineffective enhancing the firm performance. Our study also lends support to requirement of this legislation that limits board size from three to 12. Based on our findings, we propose further reduce this to 10 or 11 (average board of sample companies) that certainly help in enhancing board performance.
Friday, May 8, 2020
Concerns about the compensation of executive officers and other top executives of American public companies have reached fever pitch since the financial crisis and economic meltdown recently. Some observers blame the recent recession in part on the unsound compensation arrangements for the top management of major financial institutions. For almost 20 years, a growing reprise of voicesÃ¢â¬âincluding some shareholders, the business media, policymakers, and academicsÃ¢â¬âhave been criticizing the way top managers are paid. The criticisms focus particularly on CEOs not only because they are the highest paid, but also because their compensation sets the pattern for executives beneath them. Flawed compensation arrangements have not been limited to aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Immense salary imbalances between CEOs and the people who work for them can send bad feelings throughout an organization, weakening loyalty and eroding the talent syndicate. Year in and year out, the same cus tom is played out in the business press; compensation figures for the highest paid chief executives elicit predictable talks about overpayment. Although economists have found that many CEOs are worth every nickel they get, social scientists are looking more closely at the psychological effects of executive pay on corporate life. One standout associate; Charles O Reilly, director of Stanford GSB s Center for Leadership Development and Research who has conducted a series of studies that try to explain CEO compensation, ranging from how corporate boards decide upon salaries to how social status figures in setting executive pay. One of O Reilly s latest papers examines how chief executive salaries affect employees. The study found that inequity in CEO pay triggers increased turnover among managers below the chief executive. Using data from 120 large public companies over a five-year period, O Reilly found, for example, that in one firm
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
According to the United States GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"National Directions in Education Research Planning,Ã¢â¬ educational research planning must emphasize focus and selectivity in curriculum design and Ã¢â¬Å"concentrate on those areas that the public and profession believe are important as well as those that will become important,Ã¢â¬ to render education practical for studentÃ¢â¬â¢s future lives outside of the classroom. Student learning is the touchstone issue and there must be Ã¢â¬Å"a particular but by no means exclusive emphasis on the challenges presented by ever-growing diversity and inequality. Ã¢â¬ (Timpane, 1998) Additionally, the selection of specific areas of inquiry for teachers, through the use of objective research, must be clear enough to Ã¢â¬Å"build strategies consisting of related projects executed over time. We will write a custom essay sample on The Critical Aspects of Education Research Planning or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬ The candidates for the Ã¢â¬Å"short list of research priorities seemed rather obvious: continued focus on reading and language learning; expanded attention to mathematics; the dynamics of teacher performance and effectiveness in schools and classrooms; and new emphasis on technology and telecommunications, international studies, and learning in family, community, and workplace settings. Peer planning amongst teachers was also deemed critical in preparing students for the future in a practical fashion, given research-based statistical support as to its effectiveness. (Timpane, 1998) Individuals involved in educational research and improvement are able, by fulfilling these objectives of specificity and focus Ã¢â¬Å"to add more value to their own work and to the joint endeavor of learning. When an educational goal can be clearly stated and is future focused, educational progress becomes based on ideas that have a clear applicability to studentÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and futures, and also can be Ã¢â¬Å"validated by well-designed, well-executed research,Ã¢â¬ focused objectives are more easily Ã¢â¬Å"translated into success by well-qualified professionalsÃ¢â¬ with clarity for students and teachers. (Timpane, 1998) Within every school or classroom, there is always a tension between creating a flexible and responsive community of individual learners and adhering to focused, validated, objective standards determined by outside professional sources. But even though standards cannot nor should not be rigidly applied, having a research based blueprint for how a district should operate is key to ensure that the Ã¢â¬Å"ideology of associational action and local democracy on the one handÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"an adherence to essentially rational-bureaucratic approaches to planning and implementationÃ¢â¬ is kept in a state of balance, and students are adequately prepared to move on into a new educational community and teachers have a network of professional resources, guides, and support structures upon which they can shape their educational objectives and plans. (Chaskin, 2005) How to cite The Critical Aspects of Education Research Planning, Essays
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Separate Peace In John Knowles book A Separate Peace he communicates how the war in him was taking its toll on him. He uses the characters in a complicated plot to show the destructive forces of war. The characters, Gene and Finny, are the opposing forces in a struggle between the reality of war (World War II) and a separate peace. A peace away from the real war and the awful things that come from it. Through their relationship, which is a struggle on both sides, Knowles establishes the reality of war through a relationship. Gene Forrestor is established as the force of reality. This idea is established clearly in a speech Gene gives as the narrator of the story. "Everyone has a moment in history which belongs particularly to him. It is the moment when his emotions achieve their most powerful sway over him, and afterward when you say to this person " the world today" or "life" or "reality" he will assume that you mean this moment, even if it is fifty years past. The world, through his unleashed emotions, imprinted itself upon him and he carries the stamp of that passing moment forever." (Knowles, 32) This statement explains that Gene must have something that is his "stamp". This stamp defines an individual standing up for something he believes in. The next paragraph shows that this is true where Gene continues, "For me, this moment-four years is a moment in history-war the war. The war was and is reality for me. I still live and think in its atmosphere." (Knowles, 32) Later in the same paragraph he goes on to say: "America is not, never has been, and never will be what the songs and poems call it, a land of plenty. Nylon, meat, gasoline, and steel are rare. There are too many jobs and not enough workers. Money is very easy to earn but rather hard to spend, because there isn't very much to buy. The war will always be fought very far away from America and it will never end. Nothing in America stands still for very long, including the people, who are always either leaving or on leave." (Knowles, 32) This is what Gene stands for in the book A Separate Peace. Gene appears to understand the reality of war and how it affects people. Throughout the entire story Gene is used to bring the destructive reality of war into everyday life at Devon High School where there is an attempt to create and exist in a separate peace. There is a reality known by Gene that is headed by Gene's best friend, Finny. Finny has his own reality that he creates and exists in is the separate peace spoken of earlier. Finny who is a very athletic person, begins to create this separate peace with games. Because Finny can't face the reality of the real war, these games are a representation of the war. Finny makes the rules so that he can exist in these games as an invincible force. The first game Finny invents is "The Super Suicide of the Summer Session." This game consists of jumping of the limb of a tree into the river by Devon. As the game is invented, both Finny and Gene, agree to start it by being the first ones to jump out of the tree into a river. One time Finny allows Gene to jump out first. This is the start of a separate peace. "We were standing on a limb, I a little farther out than Finny. I turned to say something else, some stalling remark, something to delay even a few seconds more, and then I realized that in turning I had begun to lose my balance... There was a moment of total, impersonal panic, and then Finny's hand shot out and grabbed my arm, and with my balance restored, the panic immediately disappeared." (Knowles, 24) In this instance Finny saves Gene from falling out of Finny's world and into Gene's reality. The idea of Gene understanding that this is Finny's world comes in chapter three. "Yes, he had practically saved my life. He had also practically lost it for me. I wouldn't of been on that d#%* limb except for him. I wouldn't have turned around and so lost my balance, if he hadn't been there. I didn't need to fell any tremendous rush of gratitude toward Phineas."(Knowles, 25) This is when Gene knows he was out of his reality and into Finny's world, and Finny's world could